Background: Proenkephalin (pro-ENK) has emerged as a novel biomarker associated with both renal function and cardiac function. However, its clinical and prognostic value have not been well evaluated in symptomatic patients with heart failure.
Methods and Results: The association between pro-ENK and markers of renal function was evaluated in 95 patients with chronic heart failure who underwent renal hemodynamic measurements, including renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with the use of I-131-Hippuran and I-125-iothalainate clearances, respectively. The association between pro-ENK and clinical outcome in acute heart failure was assessed in another 1589 patients. Pro-ENK was strongly correlated with both RBF (P
- Renal function
- heart failure
- RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST ROLOFYLLINE
- BLOOD UREA NITROGEN
- ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY
- VOLUME OVERLOAD