Clinical importance of urinary sodium excretion in acute heart failure

Kevin Damman*, Jozine M. Ter Maaten, Jenifer E. Coster, Jan A. Krikken, Vincent M. van Deursen, Hidde K. Krijnen, Mischa Hofman, Wybe Nieuwland, Dirk J. van Veldhuisen, Adriaan A. Voors, Peter van der Meer

*Corresponding author for this work

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Aims: Urinary sodium assessment has recently been proposed as a target for loop diuretic therapy in acute heart failure (AHF). We aimed to investigate the time course, clinical correlates and prognostic importance of urinary sodium excretion in AHF. Methods and results: In a prospective cohort of 175 consecutive patients with an admission for AHF we evaluated urinary sodium excretion 6 h after initiation of loop diuretic therapy. Clinical outcome was all-cause mortality or heart failure rehospitalization. Mean age was 71 ± 14 years, and 44% were female. Median urinary sodium excretion was 130 (67–229) mmol at 6 h, 347 (211–526) mmol at 24 h, and decreased from day 2 to day 4. Lower urinary sodium excretion was independently associated with male gender, younger age, renal dysfunction and pre-admission loop diuretic use. There was a strong association between urinary sodium excretion at 6 h and 24 h urine volume (beta = 0.702, P < 0.001). Urinary sodium excretion after 6 h was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality after a median follow-up of 257 days (hazard ratio 3.81, 95% confidence interval 1.92–7.57; P < 0.001 for the lowest vs. the highest tertile of urinary sodium excretion) independent of established risk factors and urinary volume. Urinary sodium excretion was not associated with heart failure rehospitalization. Conclusion: In a modern, unselected, contemporary AHF population, low urinary sodium excretion during the first 6 h after initiation of loop diuretic therapy is associated with lower urine output in the first day and independently associated with all-cause mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1438-1447
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean Journal of Heart Failure
Issue number8
Early online date22-Feb-2020
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2020


  • Acute heart failure
  • Diuretic
  • Urinary sodium
  • Natriuresis

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