Co-occurrence of chronic kidney disease and glaucoma: Epidemiology and etiological mechanisms

Wei Liu, Ruru Guo, Dandan Huang, Jian Ji, Ron T. Gansevoort, Harold Snieder, Nomdo M. Jansonius*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
65 Downloads (Pure)


As the histology, physiology, and pathophysiology of eyes and kidneys show substantial overlap, it has been suggested that eye and kidney diseases, such as glaucoma and chronic kidney disease (CKD), may be closely interlinked. We review the relationship between CKD and various subtypes of glaucoma, including primary open-angle glaucoma, primary angle- closure glaucoma, normal tension glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, and several glaucoma endophenotypes. We also discuss the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and common risk factors for CKD and glaucoma, including atherosclerosis, the renin-angiotensin system, genes and genetic polymorphisms, vitamin D deficiency, and erythropoietin. The prevalence of glaucoma appears elevated in CKD patients, and vice versa, and the literature points to many intriguing associations; however, the associations are not always confirmed, and sometimes apparently opposite observations are reported. Glaucoma and CKD are complex diseases, and their mutual influence is only partially understood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalSurvey of Ophthalmology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan-2023


  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Estimated glomerular filtration rate
  • Glaucoma
  • Primary open-angle glaucoma
  • Uric acid

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