Coding Issues in Modality Analysis

Roel Popping*, Carl W. Roberts

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)
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Ambiguous phrases are the bane of researchers' attempts to ensure acceptably high interrater agreement in the encoding of texts. When modal usages and their associated rationales are encoded as part of a text analysis, ambiguities arise in characteristic (and thus identifiable) ways. This article illustrates the typical sources of disagreement among coders involved in encoding data during a modality analysis and provides concrete strategies for improving interrater agreement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-264
Number of pages21
JournalField Methods
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Aug-2009


  • agreement
  • content analysis
  • text analysis
  • modality analysis

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