Combining galacto-oligosaccharides and 2 '-fucosyllactose alters their fermentation kinetics by infant fecal microbiota and influences AhR-receptor dependent cytokine responses in immature dendritic cells

Renate Akkerman*, Madelon J. Logtenberg, Martin Beukema, Bart J. de Haan, Marijke M. Faas, Erwin G. Zoetendal, Henk A. Schols, Paul de Vos

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

Abstract

Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) and 2 '-fucosyllactose (2 '-FL) are non-digestible carbohydrates (NDCs) that are often added to infant formula to replace the functionalities of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). It is not known if combining GOS and 2 '-FL will affect their fermentation kinetics and subsequent immune-modulatory effects such as AhR-receptor stimulation. Here, we used an in vitro set-up for the fermentation of 2 '-FL and GOS, either individually or combined, by fecal microbiota of 8-week-old infants. We found that GOS was fermented two times faster by the infant fecal microbiota when combined with 2 '-FL, while the combination of GOS and 2 '-FL did not result in a complete degradation of 2 '-FL. Fermentation of both GOS and 2 '-FL increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, which coincided with the production of acetate and lactate. Digesta of the fermentations influenced dendritic cell cytokine secretion differently under normal conditions and in the presence of the AhR-receptor blocker CH223191. We show that, combining GOS and 2 '-FL accelerates GOS fermentation by the infant fecal microbiota of 8-week-old infants. In addition, we show that the fermentation digesta of GOS and 2 '-FL, either fermented individually or combined, can attenuate DC cytokine responses in a similar and in an AhR-receptor dependent way.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6510–6521
Number of pages12
JournalFood & Function
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 20-May-2022

Keywords

  • HUMAN-MILK OLIGOSACCHARIDES
  • CHAIN FATTY-ACIDS
  • IN-VITRO
  • GUT MICROBIOTA
  • DIETARY-FIBERS
  • FED FORMULA
  • IMPACT
  • BIFIDOBACTERIA
  • METABOLITES
  • ANTAGONIST

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