Comparison of Machine Learning Models Including Preoperative, Intraoperative, and Postoperative Data and Mortality After Cardiac Surgery

José Castela Forte*, Galiya Yeshmagambetova, Maureen L. van der Grinten, Thomas W.L. Scheeren, Maarten W.N. Nijsten, Massimo A. Mariani, Robert H. Henning, Anne H. Epema

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Importance: A variety of perioperative risk factors are associated with postoperative mortality risk. However, the relative contribution of routinely collected intraoperative clinical parameters to short-term and long-term mortality remains understudied.

Objective: To examine the performance of multiple machine learning models with data from different perioperative periods to predict 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year mortality and investigate factors that contribute to these predictions.

Design, Setting, and Participants: In this prognostic study using prospectively collected data, risk prediction models were developed for short-term and long-term mortality after cardiac surgery. Included participants were adult patients undergoing a first-time valve operation, coronary artery bypass grafting, or a combination of both between 1997 and 2017 in a single center, the University Medical Centre Groningen in the Netherlands. Mortality data were obtained in November 2017. Data analysis took place between February 2020 and August 2021.

Exposure: Cardiac surgery.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Postoperative mortality rates at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years were the primary outcomes. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used to assess discrimination. The contribution of all preoperative, intraoperative hemodynamic and temperature, and postoperative factors to mortality was investigated using Shapley additive explanations (SHAP) values.

Results: Data from 9415 patients who underwent cardiac surgery (median [IQR] age, 68 [60-74] years; 2554 [27.1%] women) were included. Overall mortality rates at 30 days, 1 year, and 5 years were 268 patients (2.8%), 420 patients (4.5%), and 612 patients (6.5%), respectively. Models including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data achieved AUROC values of 0.82 (95% CI, 0.78-0.86), 0.81 (95% CI, 0.77-0.85), and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.75-0.84) for 30-day, 1-year, and 5-year mortality, respectively. Models including only postoperative data performed similarly (30 days: 0.78 [95% CI, 0.73-0.82]; 1 year: 0.79 [95% CI, 0.74-0.83]; 5 years: 0.77 [95% CI, 0.73-0.82]). However, models based on all perioperative data provided less clinically usable predictions, with lower detection rates; for example, postoperative models identified a high-risk group with a 2.8-fold increase in risk for 5-year mortality (4.1 [95% CI, 3.3-5.1]) vs an increase of 11.3 (95% CI, 6.8-18.7) for the high-risk group identified by the full perioperative model. Postoperative markers associated with metabolic dysfunction and decreased kidney function were the main factors contributing to mortality risk.

Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that the addition of continuous intraoperative hemodynamic and temperature data to postoperative data was not associated with improved machine learning-based identification of patients at increased risk of short-term and long-term mortality after cardiac operations.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2237970
Number of pages14
JournalJama network open
Volume5
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 3-Oct-2022

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