High-pressure anaerobic digestion is an appealing concept since it can upgrade biogas directly within the reactor. However, the decline of pH caused by the dissolution of CO2 is the main barrier that prevents a good operating high-pressure anaerobic digestion process. Therefore, in this study, a high-pressure anaerobic digestion was studied to treat high alkalinity synthetic wastewater, which could not be treated in a normal-pressure anaerobic digester. In the high-pressure reactor, the pH value was 7.5 ~ 7.8, and the CH4 content reached 88% at 11 bar. Unlike its normal-pressure counterpart (2285 mg/L acetic acid), the high-pressure reactor ran steadily (without volatile fatty acids inhibition). Furthermore, the microbial community changed in the high-pressure reactor. Specifically, key microbial guilds (Syntrophus (11.2%), Methanosaeta concilii (50.9%), and Methanobrevibacter (26.8%)) were dominant in the high-pressure reactor at 11 bar, indicating their fundamental roles under high-pressure treating high alkalinity synthetic wastewater.