Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

M.A. Haan, R.H. Koning, A. van Witteloostuijn

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademicpeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for competitive balance having decreased in England, and weak evidence for it having decreased in Netherlands and Belgium. For Germany, France, Italy, and Spain, we find no consistent change whatsoever. We use factor analysis to examine whether our measures of competitive balance can be condensed in a limited number of factors.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationStatistical Thinking in Sports
EditorsJim Albert, Ruud H. Koning
Place of PublicationBoca Raton
PublisherChapman & Hall/CRC Press
Pages57 - 68
Number of pages11
ISBN (Print)9781584888680
Publication statusPublished - 2007

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