Computed Tomography Lesions and Their Association With Global Outcome in Young People With Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) Investigators and Participants, Lennart Riemann, Ana Mikolic, Andrew Maas, Andreas Unterberg, Alexander Younsi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
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Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can be accompanied by structural damage to the brain. Here, we investigated how the presence of intracranial traumatic computed tomography (CT) pathologies relates to the global functional outcome in young patients one year after mTBI. All patients with mTBI (Glasgow Coma Scale: 13-15) ≤24 years in the multi-center, prospective, observational Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI) study were included. Patient demographics and CT findings were assessed at admission, and the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSE) was evaluated at 12 months follow-up. The association between a "positive CT"(at least one of the following: epidural hematoma, subdural hematoma, traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH), intraventricular hemorrhage, subdural collection mixed density, contusion, traumatic axonal injury) and functional outcome (GOSE) was assessed using multi-variable mixed ordinal and logistic regression models. A total of 462 patients with mTBI and initial brain CT from 46 study centers were included. The median age was 19 (17-22) years, and 322 (70%) were males. CT imaging showed a traumatic intracranial pathology in 171 patients (37%), most commonly tSAH (48%), contusions (40%), and epidural hematomas (37%). Patients with a positive CT scan were less likely to achieve a complete recovery 12 months post-injury. The presence of any CT abnormality was associated with both lower GOSE scores (odds ratio [OR]: 0.39 [0.24-0.63]) and incomplete recovery (GOSE <8; OR: 0.41 [0.25-0.68]), also when adjusted for demographical and clinical baseline factors. The presence of intracranial traumatic CT pathologies was predictive of outcome 12 months after mTBI in young patients, which might help to identify candidates for early follow-up and additional care.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1243-1254
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neurotrauma
Issue number11-12
Publication statusPublished - 1-Jun-2023


  • adolescents
  • children
  • CT findings
  • intracranial lesions
  • mild TBI
  • outcome


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