Background: In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement characterizes a subgroup of patients who show sensitivity to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, the prognoses of these patients are heterogeneous. A better understanding of the genomic alterations occurring in these tumors could explain the prognostic heterogeneity observed in these patients.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 96 patients with NSCLC with ALK detected by immunohistochemical staining (VENTANA anti-ALK(D5F3) Rabbit Monoclonal Primary Antibody). Cancer tissues were subjected to next-generation sequencing using a panel of 520 cancer-related genes. The genomic landscape, distribution of ALK fusion variants, and clinicopathological characteristics of the patients were evaluated. The correlations of genomic alterations with clinical outcomes were also assessed.
Results: Among the 96 patients with immunohistochemically identified ALK fusions, 80 (83%) were confirmed by next-generation sequencing. TP53 mutation was the most commonly co-occurring mutation with ALK rearrangement. Concomitant driver mutations [2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) G12, 1 epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) 19del, and 1 MET exon 14 skipping] were also observed in 4 adenocarcinomas. Echinoderm microtubule associated protein-like 4 (EML4)-ALK fusions were identified in 95% of ALK-rearranged patients, with 16.2% of them also harboring additional non-EML4- ALK fusions. Nineteen non-EML4 translocation partners were also discovered, including 10 novel ones. Survival analyses revealed that patients concurrently harboring PIK3R2 alterations showed a trend toward shorter progression-free survival (6 vs. 13 months, P=0.064) and significantly shorter overall survival (11 vs. 32 months, P=0.004) than did PIK3R2-wild-type patients. Patients with concomitant alterations in PI3K the signaling pathway also had a shorter median overall survival than those without such alterations (23 vs. 32 months, P=0.014), whereas progression-free survival did not differ significantly.
Conclusions: The spectrum of ALK-fusion variants and the landscape of concomitant genomic alterations were delineated in 96 NSCLC patients. Our study also demonstrated the prognostic value of concomitant alterations in crizotinib-treated patients, which could facilitate improved stratification of ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients in the selection of candidates who could optimally benefit from therapy.
- Anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangement (ALK rearrangement)
- ALK fusion
- concomitant mutation
- next-generation sequencing (NGS)
- non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)
- ANAPLASTIC LYMPHOMA KINASE