Consistent partial least squares for nonlinear structural equation models

T.K. Dijkstra, K. Schermelleh-Engel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Partial Least Squares as applied to models with latent variables, measured indirectly by indicators, is well-known to be inconsistent. The linear compounds of indicators that PLS substitutes for the latent variables do not obey the equations that the latter satisfy. We propose simple, non-iterative corrections leading to consistent and asymptotically normal (CAN)-estimators for the loadings and for the correlations between the latent variables. Moreover, we show how to obtain CAN-estimators for the parameters of structural recursive systems of equations, containing linear and interaction terms, without the need to specify a particular joint distribution. If quadratic and higher order terms are included, the approach will produce CAN-estimators as well when predictor variables and error terms are jointly normal. We compare the adjusted PLS, denoted by PLSc, with Latent Moderated Structural Equations (LMS), using Monte Carlo studies and an empirical application.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)585-604
Number of pages20
JournalPsychometrika
Volume79
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct-2014

Keywords

  • MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD-ESTIMATION
  • LATENT-VARIABLES
  • DISTRIBUTIONS
  • MOMENTS
  • PRODUCT

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