Several R prime plasmids have been obtained with high efficiency, by enclosing the R plasmid replicator, in an R::Ti cointegrate plasmid, between two copies of the transposon Tn1831, in the same orientation. These R primes carry different segments of an octopine Ti plasmid, and are compatible with Ti plasmids. They were used to study genetic complementation of Ti plasmid insertion mutants, outside the T-DNA region, which affected oncogenicity. Complementation was observed in both recombination-proficient and -deficient strains. The complementation in trans indicates that certain functions essential for tumor formation outside the T-DNA region are probably expressed in the bacterium. Therefore, the authors proposed to make a distinction between virulence (Vir) functions and oncogenic (Onc) functions of the octopine Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A large R prime was obtained, carrying the whole Ti plasmid, except a 7-Mdalton segment, containing the Ti plasmid replicator region. Strains harboring this plasmid induced normal tumors, showing that the replicator region of the octopine Ti plasmid is dispensible for tumor induction.