Consumers’ privacy calculus: The PRICAL index development and validation

Frank T. Beke*, Felix Eggers*, Peter C. Verhoef*, Jaap E. Wieringa*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

21 Citations (Scopus)
626 Downloads (Pure)


Although collecting personal information about consumers is crucial for firms and marketers, understanding of when and why consumers accept or reject information collection remains limited. The authors conceptualize a privacy calculus that represents a consumer's trade–off of the valence and uncertainty of the consequences of the collection, storage, and use of personal information. For example, usage-based car insurance requires drivers to share data on their driving behavior in exchange for a discount (certain benefit) but at the risk of third parties intercepting location data for malicious use (uncertain disadvantage). Building on this conceptualization, the authors develop the privacy calculus (PRICAL) index. They empirically confirm the validity of the items (Study 1) and the index as a whole (Study 2). The PRICAL index is generally applicable and improves the explanation of behavioral intentions (Study 2) and actual behavior (Study 3), compared with currently used constructs (e.g., privacy concern, trust). Overall, the PRICAL index allows managers to understand consumers’ acceptance of information collection regarding financial, performance, psychological, security, social, and time-related consequences, which the authors demonstrate using the top five most valuable digital brands (Study 4).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20-41
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Research in Marketing
Issue number1
Early online date6-Jun-2021
Publication statusPublished - Mar-2022


  • Index development
  • Information collection
  • Privacy
  • Privacy calculus


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