Converting extracellular vesicles into nanomedicine: loading and unloading of cargo

B. S. Joshi*, Daniela Ortiz, I. S. Zuhorn*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
137 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membranous containers that are secreted by multiple cell types and actively transport biomolecules such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids to distant cells, thereby inflicting phenotypic changes. In addition to their use in disease diagnosis, EVs have emerged as powerful tools for disease treatment. Specifically, the natural transport capacity of EVs can be exploited for drug delivery purposes. In this review, we focus on the key technologies that are used to 'design' EVs for their use as biological delivery vehicles. We provide a comprehensive overview of (i) methods for the loading of EVs with therapeutic cargo, (ii) methods for EV surface functionalization to direct EVs to target cells, and (iii) methods to stimulate cargo release from EVs. Finally, we discuss the remaining and up-coming challenges for the clinical translation of EV-mediated drug delivery.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100148
Number of pages23
JournalMaterials today nano
Volume16
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec-2021

Keywords

  • EVs
  • Nanocarriers
  • Cargo loading
  • Biomedical engineering
  • Drug delivery
  • CELL-DERIVED EXOSOMES
  • DRUG-DELIVERY VEHICLES
  • TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR
  • MICROVESICLE-MEDIATED DELIVERY
  • INHIBIT IN-VITRO
  • MEMBRANE-VESICLES
  • ENGINEERED EXOSOMES
  • CLICK CHEMISTRY
  • DENDRITIC CELLS
  • GROWTH-FACTOR

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