Aims Five echocardiographic parameters-left atrial volume index, left ventricular mass index, tricuspid regurgitation velocity, myocardial tissue velocity, and the ratio of early mitral inflow to tissue velocity of the mitral annulus (E/e')-are recommended in both the current European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines and the American Society of Echocardiography/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function. We aimed to perform a systematic review of these echocardiographic parameters at resting conditions for their correlation with left ventricular filling pressures in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). In addition, the prognostic value of these parameters was assessed.
Methods and results Nine studies reported the correlation between echocardiography and invasive haemodynamics, and 18 papers reported on the prognostic value of echocardiography in HFpEF. Among the parameters, most data were reported for E/e'. The pooled correlation coefficient r was 0.56 for the relation between E/e' and invasively measured filling pressures. Combined weighted-mean meta-analysis of prognostic studies resulted in a hazard ratio of 1.05 (95% confidence interval 1.03-1.06) per unit increase in E/e' for the combined outcome of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular hospitalization. The other echocardiographic parameters, when taken individually, had similar or lower association with prognosis.
Conclusion Only small number of studies validated the use of echocardiographic parameters at rest in patients with HFpEF. The best established parameter appears to be E/e', but the existing data only show modest correlations of E/e' with invasive filling pressures and outcomes in HFpEF.
- Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction
- CARDIAC STRUCTURE
- WEDGE PRESSURE