Cost analysis of outbreaks with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Dutch long-term care facilities (LTCF)

Antonius M van Rijt, Jan-Willem H Dik, Mariëtte Lokate, Maarten J Postma, Alex W Friedrich

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Highly resistant microorganisms (HRMOs) are of high concern worldwide and are becoming increasingly less susceptible for antibiotics. To study the cost effectiveness of infection prevention measures in long-term care, it is essential to first fully understand the impact of HRMOs. The objective of this study is to identify the costs associated with outbreaks caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Dutch long-term care facilities (LTCF).


After an outbreak of MRSA, Dutch LTCF can submit a reimbursement form to the Dutch Healthcare Authority ("Nederlandse Zorgautoriteit"; NZa) to get a part of the total costs reimbursed. In this study, we requested NZa forms for financial impact analysis. Details regarding the costs of the outbreak have been extracted from these forms and additionally specific LTCF have been visited in person to validate the data. Results

34 complete reimbursement forms from the period between 2011 and 2016 were received from the NZa and have been included. The median cost per patient per day was estimated at (sic)83.80, varying between (sic)16.89 and (sic)1,820.09. We validated five reimbursement forms by visiting the facility and recalculating the costs. We found a non-significant positive difference of (sic)26.07 compared with the original data (p = 0.068).


This study is to our knowledge the first to give a national overview of total costs associated with an MRSA outbreak in LTCF in the Netherlands. Overall, costs per patient per day seem lower than in a hospital setting, although total costs are much higher due to the long term of care.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0208092
Number of pages12
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 26-Nov-2018



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