Cost-Benefit Analysis of the KiVa Anti-Bullying Program in the Netherlands

Gijs Huitsing*, Simone Barends, Joran Lokkerbol

*Corresponding author for this work

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This study performs a cost-benefit analysis of the implementation of the KiVa anti-bullying program in the Netherlands. Specifically, it addressed whether the expected benefits of KiVa for victims in terms of lifetime income are greater than the costs that are made for implementing the program. The KiVa intervention was examined in a randomized controlled trial in the Netherlands in 2012–2014 in 98 Dutch primary schools (target grades US-level 3–4, 8 to 9 years old). A model-based approach was applied to the effects for the expected income for prevented victims, which is a long-term outcome that can be quantified. The estimated costs and benefits of implementing KiVa were used to estimate the return-on-investment (ROI) that indicated the expected benefits per euro invested. Investing in KiVa in the Netherlands generated an ROI of €4.04–€6.72, indicating that it is good value for money to invest in KiVa. The chosen estimates in this study were deemed conservative; on the cost side, it was assumed that schools maximally implement KiVa (thus, maximum costs), and on the benefit side, only the expected income effect for victims was included to the model. Quantifying and incorporating other outcomes (i.e., depression, anxiety, psychiatric problems, not only for victims but also for bullies, bystanders, parents, teachers) may further increase the ROI for this intervention.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-224
Number of pages10
Journal International Journal of Bullying Prevention
Issue number2
Early online date5-Jul-2019
Publication statusPublished - Sep-2020

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