BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women of the reproductive age group. Since 2018, the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (4vHPV) vaccine targeting four HPV types (6/11/16/18) has been introduced in the national immunization program in Ethiopia. Currently, however, a nonavalent HPV (9vHPV) vaccine which provides broader protection against nine HPV types (6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58) is available for global use. Our study, therefore, aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of 9vHPV vaccine compared to the current HPV vaccination program in Ethiopia.
METHOD: A static Markov cohort model was used to simulate the progression of HPV infection to cervical cancer for a cohort of 12-years-old girls (N = 100,000) in Ethiopia. The model ran up to the age of 100 years, with a cycle length of 1 year. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to explore the robustness of the model and uncertainties around the parameters included in the model. Cost-effectiveness thresholds of one and three times gross domestic product (GDP) per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained were considered.
RESULTS: At a price of US$ 6.9, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) per QALY gained for the 9vHPV vaccine was US$ 454 compared to the 4vHPV vaccine, which is less than one times GDP per capita of Ethiopia. The ICER was most sensitive to the change in the discount rate of QALYs. Compared to 4vHPV vaccine, for 9vHPV vaccine to remain very cost-effective and cost-effective, its price per dose should not exceed US$ 8.4 and US$ 15, respectively, at a threshold of one and three times GDP per capita.
CONCLUSION: Compared to the 4vHPV vaccine, the 9vHPV vaccine is a cost-effective option in Ethiopia, given that its price per dose does not exceed US$15.