Course of body weight before and after the initiation of insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Retrospective inception cohort study (ZODIAC 58)

Mireille A Edens*, Peter R van Dijk, Eelko Hak, Henk J G Bilo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
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Aims: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of insulin treatment initiation on weight by taking weight change prior to initiation into account.

Materials and methods: We performed an observational retrospective inception cohort study, concerning Dutch primary care. We identified all patients that initiated insulin treatment (n = 7967) and individually matched patients with a reference patient (n = 5213 pairs). We obtained estimated mean weight changes in the five years prior to five years post insulin therapy. We applied linear regression analysis on weight change in the first year after insulin therapy (T0 to T+1), with matched group as primary determinant adjusted for pre-insulin weight change and additional covariates.

Results: Estimated mean weight increased in the five consecutive years prior to insulin therapy (-0.23 kg in year T-5 to T-4, 0.01 kg in year T-4 to T-3, 0.07 kg in year T-3 to T-2, 0.24 kg in year T-2 to T-1, and 0.46 kg in year T-1 to T0) and continued to increase in the first year after, that is T0 to T+1, at a slightly lower rate (0.31 ± 3.9 kg). Pre-insulin weight change had the highest explained variance and was inversely and independently associated with weight change (p < .001). Starting insulin was associated with weight increase, independent of pre-insulin weight change (β-adjusted 1.228, p < .001). Stratification revealed that despite having a more or less similar baseline BMI, patients with substantial weight increase showed higher estimated mean BMI's followed by weight loss pre-insulin. In matched references, estimated mean weight changes were negative in all years concerning the study period, indicating consistent weight loss.

Conclusions: Initiation of insulin therapy was independently associated with weight increase; however, overall effect on weight was small and subject to substantial variation. Pre-insulin weight change is identified as a relatively strong inverse determinant of weight change after insulin initiation.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00212
Number of pages12
JournalEndocrinology, diabetes & metabolism
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr-2021


  • insulin
  • pharmacoepidemiology
  • type 2 diabetes
  • weight management
  • GAIN


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