Critical Thinking, Citizenship, and Vocational Training: Creating a Space for Bildung

Anouk Zuurmond

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterAcademic

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In chapter 2, Zuurmond explores the notion of Bildung. The chapter starts with a review of literature on Bildung and an analysis of fundamental Dutch policy documents. It then describes a subsidised research project run by a consortium of two research-oriented universities, two secondary vocational education (mbo) institutions, and the HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht, which attempts to move away from the aforementioned perspective. The aim of the project is to find a space for Bildung in mbo institutions in the Netherlands, whilst at the same time providing theoretical clarity and practical support for the educational praxis. A link is made between Bildung, citizenship education and critical thinking to achieve this. The project seeks to intertwine personal development with contributions to the social order. It brings together researchers and teachers who co-designed the project, who engage in joint reflection in so-called Teacher Design Teams. A significant outcome is that it is essential to seize the opportunities offered by unexpected learning moments, by starting class dialogues and making sense of emerging situations in the interaction between teachers and students, in the ‘here and now.’
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationOpening up spaces for meaningful engagement in educational praxis
EditorsNicolina Montesano Monteressori, George Lengkeek
Place of PublicationUtrecht
Number of pages23
ISBN (Print)9789463012928
Publication statusPublished - 24-Nov-2020


  • critical thinking
  • citizenship education
  • Bildung
  • vocational education

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