Background The factors influencing elicitation responses in individuals allergic to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes are not well understood.
Objectives Investigation of the elicitation response to the new, less-sensitizing PPD alternative 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) under simulated hair dye use conditions.
Methods The cross-elicitation response to ME-PPD (2% in a hair dye test product for 30 min on forearm then rinsing) was analysed at days 2 and 3 in 30 PPD-allergic individuals with diagnostic patch test grades +, ++ or +++ according to the classification of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group.
Results Cross-reactivity to the ME-PPD-containing hair dye test product was elicited in nine of 30 subjects (30%), while 70% were negative. Cross-reactivity was elicited in two of four cases with grade +++, three of 10 with grade ++ and four of 16 with grade +. Under identical conditions, PPD was previously found to elicit a response in 21 of 27 PPD-allergic individuals. In 18 of these 21 individuals, either the strength of the cross-elicitation response to ME-PPD was decreased or no response occurred.
Conclusions Under simulated hair dye use conditions, a significantly lower degree of cross-elicitation to ME-PPD (30%) was observed than previously reported for PPD (32 of 38, 84%). Additionally, a decreased cross-elicitation strength was observed across all three patch test grades, likely reflecting the reduced skin-sensitization properties of ME-PPD. Consequently, careful dermatological evaluation is required to assess cross-reactivity to ME-PPD in patients allergic to hair dyes.
- CONTACT ALLERGY