Background: Allergic contact dermatitis caused by p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a health concern for hair dye users. Because of its lower sensitization potency, the PPD derivative 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) has been developed as an alternative hair dye for primary prevention. However, cross-elicitation responses can occur in PPD-allergic subjects.
Objectives: To compare cross-elicitation responses to ME-PPD in open use and diagnostic patch testing of PPD-allergic subjects with hair dye-related allergic contact dermatitis.
Methods: Reactions to ME-PPD were investigated in 25 PPD-allergic subjects by performing (1) 45-minute open use testing with a hair dye containing 2.0% of either ME-PPD or PPD, and (2) patch testing with increasing ME-PPD concentrations (0.1%-2.0% pet.).
Results: Of the 25 PPD-allergic subjects, 21 (84%) reacted to open use testing with a hair dye containing 2.0% PPD, and testing with 2.0% ME-PPD led to cross-elicitation in 12 (48%). When patch tested with increasing ME-PPD concentrations, 13 (52%) cross-reacted at 0.1% (lowest dose) and 21 (84%) at 2.0% (highest dose), indicating decreased reactivity as compared with published PPD dose-response data.
Conclusion: In line with the decreased cross-reactivity of ME-PPD in hair dye open use testing, PPD-allergic subjects show an attenuated cross-elicitation dose response to ME-PPD in patch testing.
- contact allergy
- allergic contact dermatitis
- diagnostic patch tests
- open use test
- hair dyes