Cross-sectional relationship between glycaemic control, hyperglycaemic symptoms and quality of life in type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-2)

N Kleefstra*, LJ Ubink-Veltmaat, ST Houweling, KH Groenier, B Meyboom-de Jong, HJG Bilo

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background: To describe the relationship between glycaemic control, hyperglycaemic symptoms and quality of life (HRQOL) in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods: In a shared-care diabetes project HRQOL was assessed. A total of 1664 patients with type 2 diabetes were identified in 32 primary healthcare practices. Of these patients, 1149 were included. HRQOL was measured using a generic questionnaire (Rand-36), completed by 1006 of the 1149 participants.

Results: The number of hyperglycaemic symptoms was higher in women (1.88) compared with men (1.64), without differences in mean haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) (7.5%). Univariate analyses showed negative relationships between all dimensions of the Rand-36 and hyperglycaemic symptoms (p <0.001), but between only one dimension and HbA(1c) (p=0.005). Multivariate analyses showed no association between any of the dimensions of the Rand-36 and HbA(1c), but the relationship between hyperglycaemic symptoms persisted in all dimensions (p <0.001). Notwithstanding these results, the presence of hyperglycaemic symptoms was related to higher HbA(1c).

Conclusion: In type 2 diabetic patients, as assessed by a generic questionnaire, there is an evident relationship between hyperglycaemic symptoms and HRQOL and not between HbA(1c) and HRQOL. Subjective hyperglycaemic symptoms are, independent of HbA(1c), important for HRQOL in type 2 diabetic patients, and should therefore not he neglected in the management of diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-221
Number of pages7
JournalNetherlands Journal of Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun-2005


  • cross-sectional studies
  • diabetes mellitus type 2
  • hyperglycaemia
  • primary health care
  • quality of life

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