Crystal Structure of 4,6-α-Glucanotransferase GtfC-ΔC from Thermophilic Geobacillus 12AMOR1: Starch Transglycosylation in Non-Permuted GH70 Enzymes

Tjaard Pijning*, Evelien M Te Poele, Tijn C de Leeuw, Albert Guskov, Lubbert Dijkhuizen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Abstract

GtfC-type 4,6-α-glucanotransferase (α-GT) enzymes from Glycoside Hydrolase Family 70 (GH70) are of interest for the modification of starch into low-glycemic index food ingredients. Compared to the related GH70 GtfB-type α-GTs, found exclusively in lactic acid bacteria (LAB), GtfCs occur in non-LAB, share low sequence identity, lack circular permutation of the catalytic domain, and feature a single-segment auxiliary domain IV and auxiliary C-terminal domains. Despite these differences, the first crystal structure of a GtfC, GbGtfC-ΔC from Geobacillus 12AMOR1, and the first one representing a non-permuted GH70 enzyme, reveals high structural similarity in the core domains with most GtfBs, featuring a similar tunneled active site. We propose that GtfC (and related GtfD) enzymes evolved from starch-degrading α-amylases from GH13 by acquiring α-1,6 transglycosylation capabilities, before the events that resulted in circular permutation of the catalytic domain observed in other GH70 enzymes (glucansucrases, GtfB-type α-GTs). AlphaFold modeling and sequence alignments suggest that the GbGtfC structure represents the GtfC subfamily, although it has a so far unique alternating α-1,4/α-1,6 product specificity, likely determined by residues near acceptor binding subsites +1/+2.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2c06394
Pages (from-to)15283–15295
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Volume70
Issue number48
Early online date28-Nov-2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 7-Dec-2022

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