Cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain on the visual analogue scale for pain in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

Anne M. Boonstra*, Henrica R. Schiphorst Schiphorst Preuper, Gerlof A. Balk, Roy E. Stewart

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

    203 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The aim of this study was to find the cut-off points on the visual analogue scale (VAS) to distinguish among mild, moderate, and severe pain, in relation to the following: pain-related interference with functioning; verbal description of the VAS scores; and latent class analysis for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. A total of 456 patients were included. Pain was assessed using the VAS and verbal rating scale; functioning was assessed using the domains of the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36). Eight cut-off point schemes were tested using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA), ordinal logistic regression, and latent class analysis. The study results showed that VAS scores = 6.5 implied severe interference. VAS scores = 7.5 as severe pain. Latent class analysis found that a 3-class solution fitted best, resulting in the classes 0.1 to 3.8, 3.9 to 5.7, and 5.8 to 10 cm. Findings from our study agree with those of some other studies, although many other studies found different optimal cut-off point schemes. As there appear to be no universally accepted cut-off points, and in view of the low-to-moderate associations between VAS scores and functioning and between VAS and verbal rating scale scores, the correct classification of VAS scores as mild, moderate. or severe in clinical practice seems doubtful. (c) 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2545-2550
    Number of pages6
    JournalPain
    Volume155
    Issue number12
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Dec-2014

    Keywords

    • Chronic pain
    • Musculoskeletal pain
    • Visual analogue scale
    • Verbal rating scale
    • DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY
    • RATING-SCALES
    • IMMPACT RECOMMENDATIONS
    • CLINICAL-TRIALS
    • CANCER PAIN
    • DISABILITY
    • CUTPOINTS
    • HEALTH
    • CLASSIFICATION
    • OSTEOARTHRITIS

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