Dapagliflozin and Kidney Outcomes in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 Infection: An Analysis of the DARE-19 Randomized Controlled Trial

Hiddo J.L. Heerspink*, Remo H.M. Furtado, Otavio Berwanger, Gary G. Koch, Felipe Martinez, Omar Mukhtar, Subodh Verma, Samvel B. Gasparyan, Fengming Tang, Sheryl L. Windsor, Vicente Cés de Souza-Dantas, Mildren del Sueldo, Robert Frankel, Ali Javaheri, Rafael A. Maldonado, Caryn Morse, Marco Mota-Gomes, Douglas Shemin, Osvaldo Lourencço Silva, Alexandre Pereira TognonMarcel Twahirwa, Joan Buenconsejo, Russell Esterline, Jan Oscarsson, Philip Ambery, Anna Maria Langkilde, Mikhail N. Kosiborod

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background and objectives: Patients who were hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection are at high risk of AKI and KRT, especially in the presence of CKD. The Dapagliflozin in Respiratory Failure in Patients with COVID-19 (DARE-19) trial showed that in patients hospitalized with COVID-19, treatment with dapagliflozin versus placebo resulted in numerically fewer participants who experienced organ failure or death, although these differences were not statistically significant. We performed a secondary analysis of the DARE-19 trial to determine the efficacy and safety of dapagliflozin on kidney outcomes in the overall population and in prespecified subgroups of participants defined by baseline eGFR.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: The DARE-19 trial randomized 1250 patients who were hospitalized (231 [18%] had eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2) with COVID-19 and cardiometabolic risk factors to dapagliflozin or placebo. Dual primary outcomes (time to new or worsened organ dysfunction or death, and a hierarchical composite end point of recovery [change in clinical status by day 30]), and the key secondary kidney outcome (composite of AKI, KRT, or death), and safety were assessed in participants with baseline eGFR <60 and ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

Results: The effect of dapagliflozin versus placebo on the primary prevention outcome (hazard ratio, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 1.10), primary recovery outcome (win ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 1.22), and the composite kidney outcome (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.50 to 1.07) were consistent across eGFR subgroups (P for interaction: 0.98, 0.67, and 0.44, respectively). The effects of dapagliflozin on AKI were also similar in participants with eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.29 to 1.77) and ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.37 to 1.29). Dapagliflozin was well tolerated in participants with eGFR <60 and ≥60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

Conclusions: The effects of dapagliflozin on primary and secondary outcomes in hospitalized participants with COVID-19 were consistent in those with eGFR below/above 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Dapagliflozin was well tolerated and did not increase the risk of AKI in participants with eGFR below or above 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)643-654
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May-2022

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