Developing Offshore Wind Farms - A Comparison and Analysis of the Legal and Governance Frameworks of the North Sea Coastal States

Ceciel Nieuwenhout*

*Corresponding author for this work

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With high offshore wind ambitions, the North Sea coastal states have each followed a different path in the development of the legal framework for offshore wind development. This article compares the legal frameworks of the coastal states on three main issues: the location choice, including selection of developers; the permitting procedures, and the connection of the owf s. The analysis shows legislative and governance convergence across the North Sea, but also a few instances where different choices are made. The consequences of the choices are discussed and analysed, with recommendations for other coastal states wishing to develop an offshore wind regulatory framework.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)518-542
Number of pages25
JournalEuropean Journal of Comparative Law and Governance
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Offshore wind
  • marine spatial planning
  • permitting
  • North sea
  • offshore grid connection

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