Development and face validity of a cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaire for children with cerebral palsy

M. Salavati*, A. Waninge, E. A. A. Rameckers, J. van der Steen, W. P. Krijnen, C. P. van der Schans, B. Steenbergen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Aim The objectives of this study were (i) to develop two cerebral visual impairment motor questionnaires (CVI-MQ's) for children with cerebral palsy (CP): one for children with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I, II and III and one for children with GMFCS levels IV and V; (ii) to describe their face validity and usability; and (iii) to determine their sensitivity and specificity.

Backgrounds The initial versions of the two CVI-MQ's were developed based on literature. Subsequently, the Delphi method was used in two groups of experts, one familiar with CVI and one not familiar with CVI, in order to gain consensus about face validity and usability. The sensitivity and specificity of the CVI-MQ's were subsequently assessed in 82 children with CP with (n = 39) and without CVI (n = 43). With the receiver operating curve the cut-off scores were determined to detect possible presence or absence of CVI in children with CP.

Results Both questionnaires showed very good face validity (percentage agreement above 96%) and good usability (percentage agreement 95%) for practical use. The CVI-MQ version for GMFCS levels I, II and III had a sensitivity of 1.00 and specificity of 0.96, with a cut-off score of 12 points or higher, and the version for GMFCS levels IV and V had a sensitivity of 0.97 and a specificity of 0.98, with a cut-off score of eight points or higher.

Conclusion The CVI-MQ is able to identify at-risk children with CP for the probability of having CVI.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-47
Number of pages11
JournalChild: Care, Health and Development
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan-2017


  • cerebral palsy
  • cerebral visual impairment
  • occupational therapists
  • paediatric physical therapist
  • screening

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