Dietary and non-dietary determinants of linear growth status of infants and young children in Ethiopia: Hierarchical regression analysis

Shimels Hussien Mohammed, Tesfa Dejenie Habtewold, Balewgizie Sileshi Tegegne, Mulugeta Molla Birhanu, Tesfamichael Awoke Sissay, Bagher Larijani, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh*

*Corresponding author for this work

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    Abstract

    Introduction

    Childhood growth faltering remains a major public health problem in developing countries. We aimed to identify the distal, underlying, and proximal dietary and non-dietary factors associated with length-for-age (LFA) of infants and young children in Ethiopia.

    Methods

    We used a nationally representative sample of 2,932 children aged 6-23 months from the Ethiopian demographic and health survey (EDHS) conducted in 2016. Hierarchical regression analysis was done to identify the factors associated with LFA.

    Findings

    Pastoral residence (adjusted (a beta) = -0.56, 95% CI = -0.82, -0.31, P<0.001) and poorest household wealth category (a beta = -0.57, 95% CI = -0.66, -0.48, P<0.001) were the basic factors negatively associated with LFA. Among underlying factors, maternal wasting (a beta = -0.43, 95% CI = -0.58, -0.28, P<0.001), and unimproved toilet facility (a beta = -0.48, 95% CI = -0.73, -0.23, P<0.001) were negatively associated with LFA. Proximal factors found positively associated with LFA were dietary diversity (a beta = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.043, 0.136, P<0.001), meal frequency (a beta = 0.04, 95% CI = 0.00, 0.08, P = 0.042), and vitamin A supplementation (a beta = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.29, P = 0.020). Male sex (a beta = -0.26, 95% CI = -0.39, -0.14, P<0.001), age (a beta = -0.12, 95% CI = -0.13, -0.10, P = 0.001), small birth size (a beta = -0.45, 95% CI = -0.62, -0.29, P<0.001), and not currently breastfeeding (a beta = -0.29, 95% CI = -0.47, -0.11, P = 0.003) were negatively associated with LFA.

    Conclusion

    LFA was associated with various influences at distal, underlying, and proximal levels. A multi-pronged approach, addressing the various factors comprehensively, would represent an important consideration to promote linear growth in early childhood in Ethiopia.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number0209220
    Number of pages14
    JournalPLoS ONE
    Volume14
    Issue number1
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 25-Jan-2019

    Keywords

    • COUNTRIES

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