AIM: To investigate the association between dietary inflammatory potential and poor periodontal health.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of participants was performed. NHANES 2011-2014 (n = 7,081) and NHANES 2001-2004 (n = 5,098) were used as discovery and validation datasets, respectively. The energy-adjusted dietary inflammatory index (E-DII) score was calculated for each participant based on 24-hr dietary recalls to assess diet-associated inflammation. Periodontitis was defined by the CDC/AAP using clinical periodontal parameters. Natural cubic spline was applied to identify any non-linear associations of the E-DII score with moderate/severe periodontitis. Furthermore, interaction analyses were performed by age, gender, and race/ethnicity to explore the moderating roles of these factors.
RESULTS: In the discovery dataset, a non-linear positive relationship with periodontitis was identified for the E-DII score (P non-linearity < .001) after adjustment for potential confounders. Compared with those individuals in the lowest tertile of E-DII, participants in the highest tertile who consumed a pro-inflammatory diet were 53% more likely to be periodontitis (OR tertile3vs1 = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.33-1.77). The validation dataset showed similar associations. Relatively stronger associations were seen in older adults and males.
CONCLUSION: Consuming a pro-inflammatory diet indicated by the E-DII score is associated with periodontal disease in the U.S. general adult population.