Differences in lipid and blood pressure measurements between individuals with type 1 diabetes and the general population: a cross-sectional study

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OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a precarious complication of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Alongside glycaemic control, lipid and blood pressure (BP) management are essential for the prevention of CVD. However, age-specific differences in lipid and BP between individuals with T1D and the general population are relatively unknown.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Six diabetes outpatient clinics and individuals from the Lifelines cohort, a multigenerational cohort from the Northern Netherlands.

PARTICIPANTS: 2178 adults with T1D and 146 22 individuals without diabetes from the general population.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol), systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), stratified by age group, glycated haemoglobin category, medication use and sex.

RESULTS: In total, 2178 individuals with T1D and 146 822 without diabetes were included in this study. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were lower and SBP and DBP were higher in individuals with T1D in comparison to the background population. When stratified by age and medication use, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were lower and SBP and DBP were higher in the T1D population. Men with T1D achieved lower LDL-cholesterol levels both with and without medication in older age groups in comparison to women. Women with T1D had up to 8 mm Hg higher SBP compared with the background population, this difference was not present in men.

CONCLUSIONS: Lipid and BP measurements are not comparable between individuals with T1D and the general population and are particularly unfavourable for BP in the T1D group. There are potential sex differences in the management of LDL-cholesterol and BP.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere073690
Number of pages9
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 25-Oct-2023


  • type 1 diabetes melllitus
  • blood pressure
  • hypercholesterolemia
  • hypertension
  • cross-sectional
  • general population

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