Differentiated integration and disintegration in the European Union after Brexit: risks versus opportunities

Benjamin Leruth*, Stefan Gänzle, Jarle Trondal

*Corresponding author for this work

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    10 Citations (Scopus)
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    Differentiation is becoming an increasingly salient feature of European integration. The multi‐faceted European crisis and the subsequent Brexit vote (paving the way for a ground‐breaking case of differentiated disintegration) have led scholars and practitioners to think about the consequences of differentiated integration. This article draws on five well‐established models of differentiation experienced by countries both inside and outside the Union: the EEA model; the Danish model of (quasi‐)permanent differentiation; the Swedish model of de facto differentiation; the instrumental model; and the British model of differentiated disintegration. It addresses the different risks and opportunities that each of these models entail. The article further introduces the contributions to this Symposium, which aims at paving the way for future research on the consequences of differentiation in light of Brexit.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1383-1394
    Number of pages12
    JournalJournal of Common Market Studies
    Issue number6
    Early online date2-Sep-2019
    Publication statusPublished - Nov-2019



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