Does Periodontitis Affect the Association of Biological Aging with Mortality?

Y. Liu, S. Xu, Q. Cai, Y. Chen, P. Zhu, M. Du, A. Visser, A. Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
41 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

The prevalence of periodontitis is increasing with the aging of the global population. Periodontitis has been suggested to accelerate aging and increase mortality. The present nationwide prospective cohort study aimed to determine whether periodontitis could modify the association of biological aging with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in middle-aged and older adults. Participants ≥40 y of age from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) were included (n = 6,272). Phenotypic age acceleration (PhenoAgeAccel) was used to evaluate the biological aging process. Moderate/severe periodontitis was defined using a half-reduced Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American Academy of Periodontology case definition. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression was conducted to estimate the association between PhenoAgeAccel and mortality risk, followed by effect modification analysis to test whether periodontitis modified the association. During a median follow-up of 24.5 y, 3,600 (57.4%) deaths occurred. The positive relationships between PhenoAgeAccel and all-cause and cause-specific mortality were nonlinear. After adjusting for potential confounders, the highest quartile of PhenoAgeAccel was associated with increased all-cause mortality in individuals with no/mild periodontitis (hazard ratio for Q4 vs. Q1 [HRQ4vs.Q1] = 1.789; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.541–2.076). In contrast, the association was enhanced in patients with moderate/severe periodontitis (HRQ4vs.Q1 = 2.446 [2.100–2.850]). Periodontal status significantly modified the association between PhenoAgeAccel and all-cause mortality (P for interaction = 0.012). In subgroup analyses, the modifying effect of periodontitis was observed in middle-aged adults (40–59 y), females, and non-Hispanic Whites. Although cause-specific mortality showed a similar trend, the PhenoAgeAccel × periodontitis interaction did not reach statistical significance. In conclusion, periodontitis might enhance the association of biological aging with all-cause mortality in middle-aged and older adults. Hence, maintaining and enhancing periodontal health is expected to become an intervention to slow aging and extend life span.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)909-918
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Dental Research
Volume102
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul-2023

Keywords

  • epidemiologic effect modifier
  • periodontal diseases
  • prospective studies
  • risk factors

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