Understanding the etiology of stress-related diseases such as PTSD requires a more fundamental understanding of stress. Since individuals may differ strongly in their response to a stressor, it is argued that stress includes not only the stimulus and the response but also the individual appraisal of the situation. This chapter discusses the stress concept, how it has evolved in the course of time, and some important components of the appraisal process. In addition to the factors controllability and predictability, outcome expectancy and feedback of the victim’s own actions during the traumatic event are suggested to be important factors in the development of stress-related disease. Preliminary preclinical studies suggest that individual differences in the way in which these factors are used in the appraisal of everyday life situations may explain individual vulnerability.
|Title of host publication||Comprehensive guide to post-traumatic stress disorder|
|Publisher||Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland|
|Number of pages||16|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|