Dynamic Interactive Social Cognition Training in Virtual Reality (DiSCoVR) for People With a Psychotic Disorder: Single-Group Feasibility and Acceptability Study

Saskia Anne Nijman*, Wim Veling, Kirstin Greaves-Lord, Maarten Vos, Catharina Elizabeth Regina Zandee, Marije Aan Het Rot, Chris Neeltje Wil Geraets, Gerdina Hendrika Maria Pijnenborg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)
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BACKGROUND: People with a psychotic disorder commonly experience problems in social cognition and functioning. Social cognition training (SCT) improves social cognition, but may inadequately simulate real-life social interactions. Virtual reality (VR) provides a realistic, interactive, customizable, and controllable training environment, which could facilitate the application of skills in daily life.

OBJECTIVE: We developed a 16-session immersive VR SCT (Dynamic Interactive Social Cognition Training in Virtual Reality [DiSCoVR]) and conducted a single-group feasibility pilot study.

METHODS: A total of 22 people with a psychotic disorder and reported problems in social cognition participated. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed using a survey for participants and therapists, and by examining relevant parameters (eg, dropouts). We analyzed preliminary treatment effects on social cognition, neurocognition, and psychiatric symptoms.

RESULTS: A total of 17 participants completed the study. Participants enjoyed DiSCoVR (mean 7.25, SD 2.05; range 3-10), thought it was useful for daily social activities (mean 7.00, SD 2.05; range 3-10), and enjoyed the combination of VR and a therapist (mean 7.85, SD 2.11; range 3-10). The most frequently mentioned strength of DiSCoVR was the opportunity to practice with personalized social situations (14/20, 70%). A significant improvement of emotion perception was observed (Ekman 60 Faces; t16=-4.79, P<.001, d=-0.67), but no significant change was found in other measures of social cognition, neurocognition, psychiatric symptoms, or self-esteem.

CONCLUSIONS: DiSCoVR was feasible and acceptable to participants and therapists, and may improve emotion perception.

Original languageEnglish
Article number17808
Pages (from-to)e17808
Number of pages18
JournalJMIR mental health
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 7-Aug-2020


  • social cognition
  • virtual reality
  • psychotic disorder
  • cognitive remediation therapy
  • emotion perception
  • theory of mind
  • social cognition training

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