Economic impact of childhood/adolescent ADHD in a European setting: the Netherlands as a reference case

Hoa H. Le, Paul Hodgkins*, Maarten J. Postma, Jennifer Kahle, Vanja Sikirica, Juliana Setyawan, M. Haim Erder, Jalpa A. Doshi

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent psychiatric disorder in children/adolescents. This study reviews available European-based studies of ADHD-related costs and applies the findings to the Netherlands to estimate annual national costs for children/adolescents from a societal perspective. A systematic literature search was conducted for primary studies in Europe, published January 1, 1990 through April 23, 2013. Per-person cost estimates were converted to 2012 Euros and used to estimate annual national ADHD-related costs based on the Dutch 2011 census, ADHD prevalence rates, family composition, and employment rates. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. The average total ADHD-related costs ranged from a,not sign9,860 to a,not sign14,483 per patient and annual national costs were between a,not sign1,041 and a,not sign1,529 million (M). The largest cost category was education (a,not sign648 M), representing 62 and 42 % of the low- and high-value overall national estimates, respectively. By comparison, ADHD patient healthcare costs ranged between a,not sign84 M (8 %) and a,not sign377 M (25 %), and social services costs were a,not sign4.3 M (0.3-0.4 %). While the majority of the costs were incurred by ADHD patients themselves, a,not sign161 M (11-15 %) was healthcare costs to family members that were attributable to having an ADHD child/adolescent. In addition, productivity losses of family members were a,not sign143-a,not sign339 M (14-22 %). Despite uncertainties because of the small number of studies identified and the wide range in the national cost estimates, our results suggest that ADHD imposes a significant economic burden on multiple public sectors in Europe. The limited number of European-based studies examining the economic burden of ADHD highlights the need for more research in this area.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)587-598
Number of pages12
JournalEuropean Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Volume23
Issue number7
Early online date29-Oct-2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul-2014

Keywords

  • Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  • Children
  • Adolescents
  • Cost of illness
  • Societal costs
  • ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER
  • DEFICIT-HYPERACTIVITY-DISORDER
  • QUALITY-OF-LIFE
  • UNITED-STATES
  • CHILDHOOD PREDICTORS
  • TREATMENT PATTERNS
  • EXCESS COSTS
  • SELF-ESTEEM
  • CHILDREN
  • PREVALENCE

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