To assess the budget impact of restricting inappropriate inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) use according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD)-guidelines indication for ICS use in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-population, taking The Netherlands as a reference case.
A budget impact model was developed and closely aligned with the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research best-practice guidelines. The model estimates the impact of pharmacologic COPD maintenance treatments on clinical events (exacerbations and pneumonias) and associated healthcare utilization and costs. The current treatment mix included all maintenance treatments including long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA), long-acting β2-agonists (LABA), LABA/ICS, LABA/LAMA, and triple therapy (LABA/LAMA/ICS). We modeled a situation where 25% of patients would use ICS-containing treatments and compared this to the current Dutch situation with 60% ICS use. A 5-year time horizon with a Dutch healthcare payer's perspective was used. In sensitivity analyses, a range of values for absolute ICS reduction (20%-40%), relative risks of exacerbations and pneumonia events, and other input parameters were explored.
Over a period of 5 years, the new treatment mix with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guideline recommended ICS, and LABA/LAMA use resulted in potential avoidance of 17 405 exacerbations and 11 984 pneumonias and accompanied savings of €84 million in the base-case scenario. Savings were consistent in various sensitivity analyses, indicating cost savings between €30 and €200 million.
Reducing inappropriate ICS use and increasing use of LABA/LAMA in COPD patients could result in a reduction of exacerbations and pneumonias, corresponding with a reduction in total costs for COPD in The Netherlands.
- adverse drug reactions
- budget impact analysis
- inhaled corticosteroid use
- avoidance behavior
- chronic obstructive lung disease
- controlled study
- cost control
- disease exacerbation
- drug therapy
- health care utilization
- maintenance therapy
- major clinical study
- outcomes research
- risk factor
- sensitivity analysis
- beta 2 adrenergic receptor stimulating agent
- muscarinic receptor blocking agent