Een lekenboek in woord en beeld: de Spiegel der minschliken zaligheid

Bernadette Johanna Kramer

Research output: ThesisThesis fully internal (DIV)


Bernadette Kramer’s thesis pertains to the Spegel der minschliken zalicheid, a medieval manuscript made around 1425 in Bruges for a donor of German origin, most likely descending from Lübeck (Copenhagen, Royal Library, GkS 79). The manuscript contains a Middle German translation of the Speculum humanae salvationis. This often illustrated text, which was written originally at the beginning of the fourteenth century, became readily one of the most influential books on the typological interpretation of the bible. In 42 chapters of one hundred lines each, the anonymous author describes the history of salvation by relating episodes form the life of Mary and Christ to prefiguring scenes from the Old Testament. The Speculum was originally meant to be used by the clergy within a pastoral context, mainly for lay-instruction and preaching. However, the specific manuscript Kramer focuses on, the Spegel der minschliken zalicheid, was created for quite a different audience and usage. As a whole of word and image the manuscript was especially made for a reception by laypeople within their personal catechism and devotion. Based on an iconographical analysis of all the images, this thesis shows how the Speculum was adjusted in the Spegell to the needs and desires of the new target group. More specifically, it looks at how the performative reading experience of the concrete, tangible manuscript by its lay-audience is affected by its text, its illustrations, and its relationships between word and image
Original languageDutch
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
  • Ramakers, Bartholomeus, Supervisor
  • Schmidt, V.M., Supervisor, External person
Award date5-Jul-2012
Place of PublicationGroningen
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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