Effect of connective tissue grafting on buccal bone changes based on cone beam computed tomography scans in the aesthetic zone of single immediate implants: A 1-year randomized controlled trial

Elise G. Zuiderveld, Wouter G. van Nimwegen, Henny J. A. Meijer*, Ronald E. Jung, Sven Muehlemann, Arjan Vissink, Gerry M. Raghoebar

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background Connective tissue grafting has a beneficial effect on the peri-implant mucosa, but the effect of grafting the buccal mucosa on buccal bone thickness (BBT) has not been investigated, although BBT is proposed to be a key factor for the soft-tissue contour. The aim of this trial was to assess the outcome of a connective tissue graft (CTG) in the aesthetic zone of single immediate implants on the change of BBT according to cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan analysis. Methods In a 1-year randomized controlled trial, 60 patients received an immediately placed implant and provisionalization, either combined with CTG (test group) or without CTG (control group). CBCTs were taken pre-operatively (T-pre) and 1 year after definitive restoration (T-2). Any change in BBT was assessed at different implant levels. Additionally, the change in mid-buccal mucosal level (MBML) and approximal marginal bone level were assessed. Results Fifty-five patients were available for statistical analysis (test group,n = 28; control group,n = 27). At T-2, the average change in BBT was significantly larger in the test group (-0.84 +/- 0.61 mm) than in the control group (-0.46 +/- 0.54 mm,P = 0.02). A MBML gain of 0.07 +/- 0.85 mm in the test and a MBML loss -0.52 +/- 1.16 mm in the control group was observed at T-2. Average loss of marginal bone was 0.05 +/- 0.33 mm and 0.01 +/- 0.38 mm, respectively. Conclusions The application of CTG in the aesthetic zone of immediately placed and provisionalized implants is accompanied with more loss of BBT, but at the same time better maintains the mid-buccal mucosal level.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Periodontology
Early online date11-Sep-2020
Publication statusPublished - 11-Sep-2020


  • cone-beam computed tomography
  • connective tissue
  • dental implants
  • single-tooth
  • SOFT
  • WALL

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