Effect of Daytime versus Nighttime on Prehospital Care and Outcomes after Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

BRAIN-PROTECT collaborators, Carolien S E Bulte*, Floor J Mansvelder, Stephan A Loer, Frank W Bloemers, Dennis Den Hartog, Esther M M Van Lieshout, Nico Hoogerwerf, Joukje van der Naalt, Anthony R Absalom, Saskia M Peerdeman, Georgios F Giannakopoulos, Lothar A Schwarte, Patrick Schober, Sebastiaan M Bossers

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

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Background/Objectives: Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequent cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the Netherlands, suspected TBI is a criterion for the dispatch of the physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS) which are operational 24 h per day. It is unknown if patient outcome is influenced by the time of day during which the incident occurs. Therefore, we investigated the association between the time of day of the prehospital treatment of severe TBI and 30-day mortality.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the BRAIN-PROTECT study was performed. Patients with severe TBI treated by one of the four Dutch helicopter emergency medical services were included and followed up to one year. The association between prehospital treatment during day- versus nighttime, according to the universal daylight period, and 30-day mortality was analyzed with multivariable logistic regression. A planned subgroup analysis was performed in patients with TBI with or without any other injury.

Results: A total of 1794 patients were included in the analysis, of which 1142 (63.7%) were categorized as daytime and 652 (36.3%) as nighttime. Univariable analysis showed a lower 30-day mortality in patients with severe TBI treated during nighttime (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.60-0.91, p = 0.004); this association was no longer present in the multivariable model (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.59-1.16, p = 0.262). In a subgroup analysis, no association was found between mortality rates and the time of prehospital treatment in patients with combined injuries (TBI and any other injury). Patients with isolated TBI had a lower mortality rate when treated during nighttime than when treated during daytime (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34-0.76, p = 0.001). Within the whole cohort, daytime versus nighttime treatments were not associated with differences in functional outcome defined by the Glasgow Outcome Scale.

Conclusions: In the overall study population, no difference was found in 30-day mortality between patients with severe TBI treated during day or night in the multivariable model. Patients with isolated severe TBI had lower mortality rates at 30 days when treated at nighttime.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2249
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 12-Apr-2024


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