We studied the effect of recombinant murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rmGM-CSF) on the cytotoxic potential of murine peritoneal cells. Mice received rmGM-CSF intraperitoneally using different dosages and injection schemes. At different time points after the last injection, mice were sacrificed, peritoneal cells isolated and their tumour cytotoxicity was determined by a cytotoxicity assay using syngeneic [methyl-H-3]thymidine-labelled colon carcinoma cells. Also, the cytotoxic response to a subsequent in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide was determined. Upon daily injection of 6000-54 000 U rmGM-CSF over a B-day period, the number of peritoneal cells increased over ten fold with the highest rmGM-CSF dose. Increases in cell numbers was mainly due to increases in macrophage numbers. Upon injection of three doses of 3000 U rmGM-CSF per day for 3 consecutive days, the number of macrophages remained elevated for minimally 6 days. Although the peritoneal cells from rmGM-CSF-treated mice were not activated to a tumoricidal state, they could be activated to high levels of cytotoxicity with an additional in vitro stimulation of lipopolysaccharide. Resident cells isolated from control mice could be activated only to low levels of tumour cytotoxicity with lipopolysaccharide. Tumour cytotoxicity strongly correlated with nitric oxide secretion. When inhibiting nitric oxide synthase, tumour cell lysis decreased. Thus, the expanded peritoneal cell population induced by multiple injections of rmGM-CSF has a strong tumour cytotoxic potential and might provide a favourable condition for immunotherapeutic treatment of peritoneal neoplasms.
- granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor
- peritoneal macrophages
- NITRIC-OXIDE PRODUCTION
- TUMORICIDAL ACTIVITY
- LIVER MACROPHAGES