Expression of bronchodilatory β2-adrenoceptors and bronchoconstrictive muscarinic M3-receptors alter with airway size. In COPD, (a combination of) β2-agonists and muscarinic M3-antagonists (anticholinergics) are used as bronchodilators. We studied whether differential receptor expression in large and small airways affects the response to β2-agonists and anticholinergics in COPD. Bronchoprotection by indacaterol (β2-agonist) and glycopyrrolate (anticholinergic) against methacholine- and EFS-induced constrictions of large and small airways was measured in guinea pig and human lung slices using video-assisted microscopy. In guinea pig lung slices, glycopyrrolate (1, 3 and 10 nM) concentration-dependently protected against methacholine- and EFS-induced constrictions, with no differences between large and small intrapulmonary airways. Indacaterol (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10 μM) also provided concentration-dependent protection, which was greater in large airways against methacholine and in small airways against EFS. Indacaterol (10 μM) and glycopyrrolate (10 nM) normalized small airway hyperresponsiveness in COPD lung slices. Synergy of low indacaterol (10 nM) and glycopyrrolate (1 nM) concentrations was greater in LPS-challenged guinea pigs (COPD model) compared to saline-challenged controls. In conclusion, glycopyrrolate similarly protects large and small airways, whereas the protective effect of indacaterol in the small, but not the large, airways depends on the contractile stimulus used. Moreover, findings in a guinea pig model indicate that the synergistic bronchoprotective effect of indacaterol and glycopyrrolate is enhanced in COPD.