Effects of behavioural parent training for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder on parenting behaviour: a protocol for an individual participant data meta-analysis

Laura Steenhuis, Annabeth P. Groenman*, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Rianne Hornstra, Marjolein Luman, Saskia van der Oord, Barbara J. van den Hoofdakker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
44 Downloads (Pure)


Introduction Behavioural parent training (BPT) is a well-established treatment for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). BPT is based on the hypothesis that improvements in parenting are mediators of improvements in children's behaviours. However, meta-analyses show considerate heterogeneity in effects of BPT on child outcomes, and meta-analyses on parenting outcomes are scarce. Also, few studies have investigated parenting factors as mediators of child outcomes. This study aims to examine the effects and moderators of BPT on parenting outcomes and whether improvements in parenting mediate amelioration of behaviour and impairment in children with ADHD. Methods and analyses We will conduct an individual participant data meta-analysis (IPDMA), making use of individual data of existing trials, and giving the opportunity for highly powered moderator analyses. This IPDMA will be performed by the Psychosocial ADHD INTervention (PAINT) collaboration. We will include randomised controlled trials of BPT, for individuals with ADHD below 18 years old. Systematic searches have been performed to locate relevant papers. Authors are currently contacted to share their data with the PAINT-IPDMA project. We will examine effects of BPT on parenting outcomes (eg, positive and negative parenting, management of affect, perceived parenting competence, parenting stress), moderators of these effects (eg, parental depression, parenting stress, severity of the child's ADHD symptoms) and subsequently perform mediation analyses where parenting outcomes are modelled as mediators of child outcomes (eg, symptoms and severity of ADHD, comorbid psychopathology and impairment). Ethics and dissemination We will include data from randomised control trials for which ethical approval has been received and consent forms have been signed. Deidentified data will be provided by the original investigators. We aim to disseminate our findings through peer-reviewed scientific journals, presentations at (inter)national scientific meetings, newsletters, the website of our project and the Dutch academic workspace ADHD. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017069877.

Original languageEnglish
Article number037749
Number of pages8
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number11
Early online date27-Nov-2020
Publication statusPublished - Nov-2020


  • child &amp
  • adolescent psychiatry
  • mental health
  • paediatrics
  • psychiatry
  • ADHD

Cite this