Effects of Hybrid Cycle and Handcycle Exercise on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in People with Spinal Cord Injury: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Arjan J. T. Bakkum, Thomas A. W. Paulson, Nicolette C. Bishop, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Janneke M. Stolwijk-Swuste, Dirk J. van Kuppevelt, Sonja de Groot*, Thomas W. J. Janssen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Objective: To examine the effects of a 16-week exercise programme, using either a hybrid cycle or a handcycle, on cardiovascular disease risk factors in people with spinal cord injury.

Participants: Nineteen individuals with spinal cord injury >= 8 years.

Design: Multicentre randomized controlled trial. Both the hybrid cycle group (n = 9) and the handcycle group (n = 10) trained twice a week for 16 weeks on the specific cycle. Outcome measures obtained pre and post the programme were: metabolic syndrome components (waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin resistance), inflammatory status (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (1)-6 and -10), and visceral adiposity (trunk and android fat).

Results: For all outcome measures, there were no significant differences over time between the 2 training groups. Overall significant reductions were found for waist circumference (p = 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.03), insulin resistance (p = 0.006), CRP (p = 0.05), IL-6 (p = 0.04), IL-6/IL-10 ratio (p = 0.03), and trunk (p = 0.04) and android (p = 0.02) fat percentage. No significant main effects for time were observed for systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, IL-10, and trunk and android fat mass.

Conclusion: The 16-week exercise programme, using either a hybrid cycle or a handcycle, found similar beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome components, inflammatory status and visceral adiposity, indicating that there were no additional benefits of functional electrical stimulation-induced leg exercise over handcycle exercise alone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)523-530
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Volume47
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun-2015

Keywords

  • metabolic syndrome
  • insulin resistance
  • inflammation
  • adiposity
  • paralysis
  • electric stimulation
  • PHYSICAL-ACTIVITY SCALE
  • INSULIN-RESISTANCE
  • METABOLIC SYNDROME
  • CYTOKINE RESPONSE
  • LIFE EXPECTANCY
  • HEART-RATE
  • INFLAMMATION
  • INDIVIDUALS
  • PARAPLEGIA
  • ADULTS

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