Effects of Inflammation on Hemostasis in Acutely Ill Patients with Liver Disease

Ellen G. Driever, Ton Lisman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)
65 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Patients with liver diseases are in a rebalanced state of hemostasis, due to simultaneous decline in pro- and anticoagulant factors. This balance seems to remain even in the sickest patients, but is less stable and might destabilize when patients develop disease complications. Patients with acute decompensation of cirrhosis, acute-on-chronic liver failure, or acute liver failure often develop complications associated with changes in the hemostatic system, such as systemic inflammation. Systemic inflammation causes hemostatic alterations by adhesion and aggregation of platelets, release of von Willebrand factor (VWF), enhanced expression of tissue factor, inhibition of natural anticoagulant pathways, and inhibition of fibrinolysis. Laboratory tests of hemostasis in acutely-ill liver patients may indicate a hypocoagulable state (decreased platelet count, prolongations in prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time, decreased fibrinogen levels) due to decreased synthetic liver capacity or consumption, or a hypercoagulable state (increased VWF levels, hypofibrinolysis in global tests). Whether these changes are clinically relevant and should be corrected with antithrombotic drugs or blood products is incompletely understood. Inflammation and activation of coagulation may cause local ischemia, progression of liver disease, and multiorgan failure. Anti-inflammatory treatment in acutely-ill liver patients may be of potential interest to prevent thrombotic or bleeding complications and halt progression of liver disease.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)596-606
Number of pages11
JournalSeminars in thrombosis and hemostasis
Volume48
Issue number05
Early online date8-Feb-2022
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul-2022

Keywords

  • hemostasis
  • coagulation
  • inflammation
  • acute-on-chronic liver failure
  • acute liver failure
  • VON-WILLEBRAND-FACTOR
  • FIBRIN CLOT PROPERTIES
  • REBALANCED HEMOSTASIS
  • SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATION
  • ACUTE DECOMPENSATION
  • BACTERIAL-INFECTION
  • THROMBIN GENERATION
  • IMMUNE CELLS
  • COAGULATION
  • CIRRHOSIS

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