Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) are promising for sustainable applications. Recently, electron storage during intermittent operation of electroactive biofilms (EABs) has been shown to play an important role in power output and electron efficiencies. Insights into electron storage mechanisms, and the conditions under which these occur, are essential to improve microbial electrochemical conversions and to optimize biotechnological processes. Here, we discuss the two main mechanisms for electron storage in EABs: storage in the form of reduced redox active components in the electron transport chain and in the form of polymers. We review electron storage in EABs and in other microorganisms and will discuss how the mechanisms of electron storage can be influenced.