Exposure–Response Analysis of the Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors Dapagliflozin and Empagliflozin on Kidney Hemodynamics in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Sjoukje van der Hoek, Jeroen V. Koomen, Erik J. M. van Bommel, Charlotte M. Mosterd, Rosalie A. Scholtes, Anne C. Hesp, Jasper Stevens, Daniel H. van Raalte, Hiddo J. L. Heerspink*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Sodium–glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve markers for renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with and without type 2 diabetes (T2D). To assess whether individual differences in plasma drug exposure can explain inter-individual response variation, we characterized the exposure–response relationship for two SGLT2 inhibitors on several clinical and kidney hemodynamic variables. Data were obtained from two studies, RED and RECOLAR, assessing the effects of once-daily 10 mg dapagliflozin or empagliflozin, respectively, on kidney hemodynamics in patients with T2D. Individual plasma exposure was estimated using non-compartmental analyses and exposure–response relationships were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. In 23 patients participating in RED, the dapagliflozin geometric mean apparent area under the concentration-time curve during one dosing interval at steady state (AUC0–tau,ss) was 1153.1 µg/L*h (coefficient of variation (CV) 81.8%) and associated, per doubling, with decreases in body weight (0.29 kg, p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (0.80 mmHg, p = 0.002), measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) (0.83 mL/min, p = 0.03), and filtration fraction (0.09%, p = 0.04). In 20 patients participating in RECOLOR, the empagliflozin geometric mean AUC0–tau,ss was 2035.7 nmol/L*h (CV 48.4%) and associated, per doubling, with decreases in body weight (0.13 kg, p = 0.002), systolic blood pressure (0.65 mmHg, p = 0.045), and mGFR (0.78 mL/min, p = 0.002). To conclude, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin plasma exposure was highly variable between patients and associated with inter-individual variation in response variables.
Original languageEnglish
Article number747
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of personalized medicine
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 27-Apr-2023


  • SGLT2 inhibitors
  • dapagliflozin
  • empagliflozin
  • pharmacokinetics
  • pharmacodynamics
  • renal hemodynamics
  • type 2 diabetes
  • response variability

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