Face-to-Face Versus Telephonic Extended Glasgow Outcome Score Testing After Traumatic Brain Injury

Sebastiaan M. Bossers*, Joukje van der Naalt, Bram Jacobs, Lothar A. Schwarte, Robert Verheul, Patrick Schober

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleAcademicpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
54 Downloads (Pure)


OBJECTIVE: The Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS-E) is used for objective assessment of functional outcome in traumatic brain injury (TBI). In situations where face-to-face contact is not feasible, telephonic assessment of the GOS-E might be desirable. The aim of this study is to assess the level of agreement between face-to-face and telephonic assessment of the GOS-E.

SETTING: Multicenter study in 2 Dutch University Medical Centers. Inclusion was performed in the outpatient clinic (face-to-face assessment, by experienced neurologist), followed by assessment via telephone of the GOS-E after ±2 weeks (by trained researcher).

PARTICIPANTS: Patients ±6 months after TBI.

DESIGN: Prospective validation study.

MAIN MEASURES: Interrater agreement of the GOS-E was assessed with Cohen's weighted κ.

RESULTS: From May 2014 until March 2018, 50 patients were enrolled; 54% were male (mean age 49.1 years). Median time between trauma and in-person GOS-E examination was 158 days and median time between face-to-face and telephonic GOS-E was 15 days. The quadratic weighted κ was 0.79. Sensitivity analysis revealed a quadratic weighted κ of 0.77, 0.78, and 0.70 for moderate-severe, complicated mild, and uncomplicated mild TBI, respectively.

CONCLUSION: No disagreements of more than 1 point on the GOS-E were observed, with the κ value representing good or substantial agreement. Assessment of the GOS-E via telephone is a valid alternative to the face-to-face interview when in-person contact is not feasible.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)E314-E318
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Issue number3
Early online date13-Nov-2020
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • brain injuries
  • Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale
  • traumatic
  • validation

Cite this