Objective To determine factors associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) and ischaemic stroke in ageing adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients.
Methods We performed a multicentre case-control study, using data from the national CONgenital CORvitia (CONCOR) registry to identify ACHD patients within five participating centres. Patients with CAD were matched (1:2 ratio) with ACHD patients without CAD on age, CHD defect group and gender. Patients with ischaemic stroke (or transient ischaemic attack) were matched similarly. Medical charts were reviewed and a standardised questionnaire was used to determine presence of risk factors.
Results Of 6904 ACHD patients, a total of 55 cases with CAD (80% male, mean age 55.1 +/- 12.4 years) and 56 cases with stroke (46% male, mean age 46.9 +/- 15.2) were included and matched with control patients. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, traditional atherosclerotic risk factors (hypertension (OR 2.45; 95%CI 1.15 to 5.23), hypercholesterolaemia (OR 3.99; 95%CI 1.62 to 9.83) and smoking (OR 2.25; 95%CI 1.09 to 4.66)) were associated with CAD. In contrast, these risk factors were not associated with ischaemic stroke. In multivariable analysis, stroke was associated with previous shunt operations (OR 4.20; 95%CI 1.36 to 12.9), residual/unclosed septal defects (OR 2.38; 95%CI 1.03 to 5.51) and left-sided mechanical valves (OR 2.67; 95%CI 1.09 to 6.50).
Conclusions Traditional atherosclerotic risk factors were associated with CAD in ACHD patients. In contrast, ischaemic stroke was related to factors (previous shunts, septal defects, mechanical valves) suggesting a cardioembolic aetiology. These findings may inform surveillance and prevention strategies.
- Congenital Heart Disease
- Coronary Artery Disease