Flexible Machine Learning Algorithms for Clinical Gait Assessment Tools

Christian Greve*, Hobey Tam, Manfred Grabherr, Aditya Ramesh, Bart Scheerder, Juha Hijmans

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

The current gold standard of gait diagnostics is dependent on large, expensive motion-capture laboratories and highly trained clinical and technical staff. Wearable sensor systems combined with machine learning may help to improve the accessibility of objective gait assessments in a broad clinical context. However, current algorithms lack flexibility and require large training datasets with tedious manual labelling of data. The current study tests the validity of a novel machine learning algorithm for automated gait partitioning of laboratory-based and sensor-based gait data. The developed artificial intelligence tool was used in patients with a central neurological lesion and severe gait impairments. To build the novel algorithm, 2% and 3% of the entire dataset (567 and 368 steps in total, respectively) were required for assessments with laboratory equipment and inertial measurement units. The mean errors of machine learning-based gait partitions were 0.021 s for the laboratory-based datasets and 0.034 s for the sensor-based datasets. Combining reinforcement learning with a deep neural network allows significant reduction in the size of the training datasets to <5%. The low number of required training data provides end-users with a high degree of flexibility. Non-experts can easily adjust the developed algorithm and modify the training library depending on the measurement system and clinical population.
Original languageEnglish
Article number4957
Number of pages11
JournalSensors
Volume22
Issue number13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30-Jun-2022

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